• Research

To date, there have been 55 studies on RiboCeine’s unique Mechanism of Action and its overall effect on endogenous Glutathione production. The following links direct to 3rd party research sites that host these peer-reviewed and published studies.

  1. Roberts, J.C.; Nagasawa, H.T.; Zera, R.T.; Fricke, R.F.; Goon, D.J. W. Prodrugs of L-cysteine as protective agents against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. 2-(polyhydroxyalky)-and 2-(Polyacetoxyalky)-Thiazolidine-4(R)-Carboxylic Acids. J. Med Chem. 1987, 30, 1891-1896.
  2. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J.; Zera, R.T. L-cysteine prodrug protects against cyclophosphamide urotoxicity without compromising therapeutic activity. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1991, 28, 166-170.
  3. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J. Time course for the elevation of glutathione in numerous organs of L1210-bearing CDF1 mice given the L-cysteine prodrug, RibCys. Toxicology Letters, 1991, 59, 245-251.
  4. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J. Mechanisms of Chemoprotection by RibCys, a Thiazolidine Prodrug of L cysteine. Med. Chem. Res., 1991, 1, 213-219.
  5. Roberts, J.C.; Charyulu, R. L.; Zera, R.T.; Nagasawa, H.T. Protection Against Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Ribose-Cysteine (RibCys). Pharmacology & Toxicology, 1992, 70, 281-285.
  6. Rowe, J.K.; Zera, R.T.; Madoff, R.D.; Fink, A.S.; Roberts, J.C.; Johnston, G.R.; Freeney, D.A.;Young, H.L.; Bubrick, M.P. Protective Effect of RibCys Following High-Dose Irradiation of the Rectosigmoid. Dis. Colon Rectum, 1993, 36(7), 681-687.
  7. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J.; Zera, R.T. Chemoprotection against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urotoxicity: Comparison of Nine Thiol Protective Agents. AntiCancer Research, 1994, 14, 389-396.
  8. Carroll, M.P.; Zera, R.T.; Roberts, J.C.; Schlafmann, S.E.; Feeny, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; West, M.A.; Bubrick, M.P. Efficacy of Radioprotective Agents in Preventing Small and Large Bowel Radiation Injury. Dis. Colon Rectum, 1995, 38(7), 716-722.
  9. Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R.; Warters, R.L.; Lubec G. Thiazolidine Prodrugs of Cysteamine and Cysteine as Radioprotective Agents. Radiation Research, 1995, 143, 203-213.
  10. Bantseev, V.; Bhardwaj, R.; Rathbun, W.; Nagasawa, H.T.; Trevithick, J.R. Antioxidants and Cataract: (Cataract Induction in Space Environment and Application to Terrestrial Aging Cataract). Biochem. Mol. Bio. Intl., 1997, 42, 1189-1197.
  11. Roberts, J.C.; Phaneuf, H.L.; Szakacs, J.G.; Zera, R.T.; Lamb, J.G.; Franklin, M.R. Differential Chemoprotection against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Latentiated L-Cysteines. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 1998, 11, 1274-1282.
  12. Roberts, J.C.; Phaneuf, H.L.; Dominick, P.K.; Wilmore, B.H.; Cassidy, P.B. Biodistribution of [35S] – Cysteine and Cysteine Prodrugs: Potential Impact on Chemoprotection Strategies. J. Labelled Cpd. Radiopharm., 1999, 42, 485-495.
  13. Lucus, A.M.; Henning G.; Dominick, P.K.; Whiteley, H.E.; Roberts, J.C.; Cohen, S.D. Ribose Cysteine Protects Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic and Renal Toxicity. Toxicologic Pathology, 2000, 28(5), 697-704.
  14. Wilmore, B.H.; Cassidy, P.B.; Warters, R.L.; Roberts, J.C. Thiazolidine Prodrugs as Protective Agents against γ-Radiation-Induced Toxicity and Mutagenesis in V79 Cells. J. Med. Chem., 2001, 44(16), 2661-2666.
  15. Lenarczyk, M.; Ueno, A.; Vannais, D.B.; Kraemer, S.; Kronenberg, A.; Roberts, J.C.; Tatsumi, K.; Hei, T.K.; Waldren, C.A. The “Pro-drug” RibCys Decreases the Mutagenicity of High-LET Radiation in Cultured Mammalian Cells. Radiation Research, 2003, 160, 579-583.
  16. Waldren, C.A.; Vannais, D.B.; Ueno A.M. A role for long-lived radicals (LLR) in radiation-induced mutation and persistent chromosomal instability: counteraction by Ascorbate and RibCys but not DMSO. Mutation Research. 2004, 551:255-265.
  17. Lucas Slitt, A.M.; Dominick, P.K.; Roberts, J.C.; Cohen, S.D. Effect of Ribose Cysteine Pretreatment on Hepatic and Renal Acetaminophen Metabolite Formation and Glutathione Depletion. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2005, 96 (6), 487-94.
  18. Oz, H.S.; Chen, T.S.; Nagasawa, H., Comparative efficacies of 2 cysteine prodrugs and a glutathione delivery agent in a colitis model. Translational Research, 2007, 150(2), 122-129.
  19. Oz, H.S. and Ebersole, J.L. Application of Prodrugs to Inflammatory Diseases of the Gut. Molecules, 2008, 13, 452-474
  20. Walker R.B., Everette J.D. Comparative Reaction Rates of Various Antioxidants with ABTS Radical Cation. J. Agric Food Chem. 2009:57:1156-1161.
  21. Heman-Ackah, S.E.; Juhn, S.K.; Huang, T.C.; Wiedmann, T.S. A combination antioxidant therapy prevents age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2010, 143, 429-434.
  22. Jurkowska, H.; Uchacz, T.; Roberts, J.; Wrobel, M. Potential therapeutic advantage of ribose-cysteine in the inhibition of astrocytoma cell proliferation. Amino Acids, 2011 41, 131-139.
  23. Kader, T.; Porteous C.M.; Williams M.J.A.; Gieseg, S.P.; McCormick, S.P.A. Ribose-cysteine increases glutathione-based antioxidant status and reduces LDL in human lipoprotein(a) mice. Atherosclerosis. 2014, 237, 725-733.
  24. Saltman A.E. D-Ribose-L-cysteine supplementation enhances wound healing in a rodent model. Am J Surg. 2015, 210, 153-158.
  25. Falana B, Adeleke O, Orenolu M, Osinubi A, Oyewopo A. Effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine on aluminum induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 2017:21(2):94-100.
  26. Joseph D.B., Olayemi O.S., Falana B.A., Duru F.I.O. Osinubi A.A.A. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine Maintained Testicular Integrity in Rats Model (Rattus Novergicus) Exposed to X-Ray. Nuclear Medicine. 2017(2)4:20-26.
  27. Ogunlade B., Osinubi A.A., Duru F.I.O., Adelakun S.A., Ogunlade S.A., Alao A.A, Histomorphological Response of Sulforaphane and RiboCeine on Annular Puncture-Induced Model of Rabbits Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. European Journal of biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017(4)11:1-9.
  28. N’guessan B.B., Amponsah S.K., Dugbartey G.J., Awuah K.D., Dotse E., Aning A., Kukuia K.K.E., Asiedu-Gyekye I.J., Appiah-Opong R. In Vitro Antioxidant Potential and Effect of a Glutathione-Enhancer Dietary Supplement on Selected Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018:7462839:8 pages.
  29. Awodele O, Badru W.A., Busari A.A., Kale O.E., Ajayi T.B., Udeh R.O. Emeka P.M. Toxicological evaluation of therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses of Cellgevity on reproductive function and biochemical indices in Wistar rats. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2018:19:68.
  30. Cukrov D., Newman T.A.C., Leask M., Leeke B., Sarogni P., Patimo A., Kline A.D., Krantz I.D., Horsfield J.A., Musio A. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates phenotypic features of SMC1A-mutated Cornelia de Lange syndrome in vitro and in vivo. Human Molecular Genetics. 2018:27:17:3002-3011.
  31. Osinubi A.A.A, Medubi L.J., Akang E.N., Sodiq L.K., Samuel, T.A., Kusemiju T., Osolu J., Madu D., Fasanmade O. A comparison of the anti-diabetic potential of D-ribose-L-cysteine with insulin, and oral hypoglycaemic agents on pregnant rats. Toxicology Reports. 2018(5):832-838.
  32. Medubi L.J., Ama C., Medubi O.O., Onwosu N.C., Lawal O.R., Osinubi A.A.A. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine-Rich Supplement Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Impaired Spermatogenesis, Testicular Steroidogenesis and Redox Status in Sprague-Dawley Rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2019(22):179-185.
  33. Emokpae O, Ben-Azu B, Ajayi AM, Umukoro S. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficits through inhibition of oxidative stress, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and nuclear factor-kappa B expression in mice. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology. 07 January 2020.
  34. Kader T., Porteous M., Jones G., Dickerhof N., Narayana V.K., Taraknath S., McCormick S.P.A. Ribose-Cysteine protects against the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228415. 02 21 2020.
  35. Emokpae O, Ben-Azu B, Ajayi AM, Umukoro S. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine enhances memory task, attenuates oxidative stress and acetyl-cholinesterase activity in scopolamine amnesic mice. Drug Dev Res. 2020;1-9
  36. Amponsah S.K., N’guessan B.B, Akandawen, A.A., Agboli S.Y., Danso, E.A., Opuni K.F.M., Asiedu Gyekye I.J., Appiah-Opong, R. Effect of Cellgevity Supplementation on Selected Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity and Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Carbamazepine. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2020 (July 3), Article ID: 7956493, 8 pages.
  37. Okoh, L., Ajayi, A.M., Ben-Azu, B., Akinluyi, E.T., Emokpae, O., Umukoro, S. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine exhibits adaptogenic-like activity through inhibition of oxido-inflammatory responses and increased neuronal caspase-3 activity in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress. Molecular Biology Reports. 2020 47:7709-7722.
  38. Ogunlade, B., Gbotolorun S.C., Ogunlade, A.A. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine modulates lead acetate-induced hematobiochemical alterations, hormonal imbalance, and ovarian toxicity in adult female Wistar rats. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. November 7, 2020; 1-8.
  39. Ogunlade, B., Fidelis, O.P., Afolayan, O.O., Agie, J.A. Neurotherapeutic and antioxidant response of D Ribose-L-Cysteine nutritional dietary supplements on Alzheimer-type hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by cuprizone in adult male wistar rate model. Food and Chemical Toxicology. November 11, 2020; 1-9.
  40. Oludare, G.O., Afolayan, G.O., Semidara, G.G. Potential anti-toxic effect of d-ribose-l-cysteine supplement on the reproductive functions of male rats administered cyclophosphamide. J. Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 8.
  41. Ojetola, A.A., Adedeji, T.G., Fasanmade, A.A. Changes in antioxidants status, atherogenic index and cardiovascular variables after prolonged doses of D-ribose-L-cysteine in male Wistar rats. Heliyon 7 (2021) e06287.
  42. Medubi, L.J., Nwosu, N.C., Medubi, O.O., Lawal, O.R., Ama, C., Kusemiju, T.O., Osinubi, A.A.A. Increased de novo glutathione production enhances sexual dysfunctions in rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation. JBRA Assisted reproduction. September 30, 2020; 1-8.
  43. Verrilli, A.M, Leibman, N.F., Hohenhaus, A.E., Mosher, B.A. Safety and efficacy of a ribose-cysteine supplement to increase erythrocyte glutathione concentration in healthy dogs. AJVR. 2021; 82(8). 653- 658.
  44. Ogunlade, B., Adelakun, S.A., Ukwenya, V.O., Elemoso, T.T. Potentiating response of D-Ribose-L Cysteine on Sodium arsenate-induced hormonal imbalance, spermatogenesis impairments and histomorphometric alterations in adult male Wistar rat. JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 2021; 25(3): 358- 367.
  45. Ojetola, A.A, Adeyemi, W.J., David, U.E., Ajibade, T.O., Adejumobi O.A., Omobowale, T.O., Oyagbemi, A.A., Fasanmade, A.A. D-ribose-L-cysteine prevents oxidative stress and cardiometabolic syndrome in high fructose high fat diet fed rats. J.Biopha. 2021 (142) 112017.
  46. Akingbade G.T., Ijomone O.M., Imam A., Aschner M., Ajao M.S. D-Ribose-l-Cysteine Improves Glutathione Levels, Neuronal and Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Damage, Caspase-3 and GFAP Expressions Following Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity. 2021 Sep 4. doi: 10.1007/s12640-021- 00404-3. pp 1-13.
  47. Adelakun, S.A., Ogunlade, B., Iteire K.A., Adedotun, O.A. Ameliorating potential and fertility enhancing activities of nutritional dietary supplementation of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine in cisplatin induced oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and seminiferous epithelium degeneration in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Metabolism Open. 12 (2021) 100128.
  48. Leask, M., Carleton, C., Leeke, B., Newman, T., Antoun, J., Farella, M., Horshield, J. RiboCeine Rescues Auranofin-Induced Craniofacial Defects in Zebrafish. Antioxidants. 2021, 10, 1964.
  49. Akingbade G.T., Ijomone O.M., Imam A., Aschner M., Ajao A.S., D-Ribose-L-Cysteine attenuates manganese-induced cognitive and motor deficit, oxidative damage, and reactive microglia activation. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2022.
  50. Ojetola, A.A. and Fasanmade, A.A. Ameliorative potential of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine in male Wistar rats with metabolic syndrome. FASEBJ. 2022, 35, May 2022.
  51. Isabor, H., Ajayi, A.M., Ben-Azu, B., Omeiza, N.A., Ademola, A.P., Umukoro, S. D-ribose-L-cysteine reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines to mitigate liver damage, and memory decline induced by copper sulfate in mice. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 73 (2022) 127001.
  52. Ogunlade, B., Gbotolorun, S.C., Ogunlade, A.A. D-ribose-L-cysteine modulates lead acetate-induced hematobiochemical alternations, hormonal imbalance, and ovarian toxicity in adult female Wistar rats. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2022 45(4), 1606-1613.
  53. Adekomi,D.A, Olajide, O.J., Adewale, O.O., Okesina, A.A., Fatoki, J.O., Falana, B.A. Adeniyi, T.D., Adegoke A.A., Ojo, W.A., Alabi, S.O. D-ribose-L-Cysteine exhibits neuroprotective activity through inhibition of oxido-behavioral dysfunctions and modulated activities of neurotransmitters in the cerebellum of Juvenile mice exposed to ethanol. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 2022 June 20:1-11.
  54. Mega, O.O., Edesiri, T.P., Victor, E., Kingsley, N.E., Rume, R.A., Faith, F.Y., Simon, O.I., Oghenetega, B.O., Agbonito-Chijiokwu, E. d-ribose- l-cysteine abrogates testicular maladaptive responses induced by polychlorinated bisphenol intoxication in rats via activation of the mTOR signaling pathway mediating inhibition of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidonitrergic flux. J. Biochem Mol. Toxicol. 2022 July 13, e23161.
  55. Ojetola, A.A., Asiwe, J.N., Adeyemi, W.J., Ogundipe, D.J., Fasanmade, A.A. Dietary Supplementation with D-Ribose-L-Cysteine Prevents Hepatic Stress and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Male Wistar Rats Fed a High-Fructose High-Fat Diet. Pathophysiology 2022, 29, 631-639.

RiboCeine is the result of 25 years of scientific research and was developed by the world-renowned research scientist and Medicinal Chemist Herbert T. Nagasawa, Ph.D. and his team of researchers at the University of Minnesota and the VA Medical Center.

Dr. Herbert T. Nagasawa

“Glutathione is found in every cell for good reason. It is the master antioxidant for the cell and protects every cell against oxidative damage resulting from oxidative stress.”

Dr. Herbert T. Nagasawa, PhD, Professor of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Senior Research Career Scientist, Veterans Administration.

For over 45 years Dr. Herbert Nagasawa has worked to advance the fields of bio and medicinal chemistry, including pioneering a breakthrough antidote for cyanide poisoning. Dr. Nagasawa dedicated a lifetime to researching more effective means of supporting cellular production of glutathione, with a focus on developing prodrugs of biologically active substances, including those of endogenous origin. In his search for a more advanced means of cysteine delivery compared to NAC, he and his team innovated the RiboCeine molecule.

Dr. Nagasawa received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Western Reserve University (now, Case-Western Reserve) in Cleveland, Ohio, and a Ph.D. degree in Organic Chemistry from the University of Minnesota. Subsequently, he spent two years as a Post-doctoral Fellow in Biochemistry at the University of Minnesota before joining the research staff of the V.A. Medical Center in Minneapolis as a Senior Chemist.

He was appointed Assistant Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Minnesota in 1959, and was named Principal Scientist of the VAMC in 1961. In 1976, Dr. Nagasawa was promoted to Senior Research Career Scientist, a nationwide Veteran Administration title reserved for the VA’s top scientists, and was promoted in 1963 to Associate Professor of Medicinal Chemistry and to Professor in 1973.

Though retired, Dr. Nagasawa still remains on faculty as an Adjunct Professor at the Centers for Drug Design, University of Minnesota.

Jeanette Roberts, Ph.D., M.P.H.

Dr. Roberts earned her B.S. degree in Biochemistry from Albright College in Reading, Pennsylvania and her Doctorate in Medicinal Chemistry from the University of Minnesota. She served fifteen years at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy, four years as a professor in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Division at the University of Wisconsin, and then eleven years as Dean of the School of Pharmacy at UW. She also served as the Director for the UW Madison Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education. As a graduate student, Dr. Roberts worked directly with Dr. Nagasawa and wrote her doctoral thesis on the development of RiboCeine.

Science Team

Scott Nagasawa, Pharm.D.

Dr. Scott Nagasawa has a successful history as Senior V.P. of Professional Services for a national pharmacy provider and later was co-owner of Regional Home Infusion Pharmacy. Dr. Nagasawa was the Chief Technical Officer for the startup company, Cellgevity, founded by himself, his brother Stuart Nagasawa, M.D., Scott Momii and Dr. Herbert Nagasawa. Together they developed the breakthrough product that is now Max’s premiere supplement. Scott received his Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Southern California (USC). As Director of Pharmaceutical Services for a large teaching hospital in Los Angeles, California, he held the positions of Clinical Instructor of Pharmacy Practice and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice at USC.

Scott Momii, M.B.A.

Scott graduated with a B.A. degree from San Jose State University, received an M.B.A. from Boston University, and completed a summer business program at Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan. Scott has served as both General Manager of a research, development and manufacturing company for specialty chemicals, and as Director of Operations for a biotechnology company that developed vaccines and cancer therapeutics. His responsibilities included manufacturing and quality control, overseeing and implementation of sales and marketing programs, as well as customer service and accounting.

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